Pneumoniae is caused by bacteria and it is an inflammatory condition of the lungs. The air sacs of the lung may get filled with fluid or pus. Some extreme forms of pneumonia can be prevented by vaccines.
What is chlamydia pneumoniae?
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a type of bacteria affecting the lungs. It leads to lung infections like pneumonia. This bacterium damages the lining of respiratory tract such as the throats, lungs and windpipe.
Chlamydia Pneumoniae Transmission
People infected with this bacterium have the bacteria present in the nose, windpipe, throat and lungs. It is contagious and spreads from one person to another when they cough or sneeze. An infected person when coughs on his hands ends up landing the bacteria on his hand. When he shakes his hand with others, he might spread the bacterium to them too. A person coming in contact with an infected person for a short duration does not get sick but this disease often spreads to people living in the same house. The symptoms of this disease show up 3 to 4 weeks after the exposure to the bacterium.
This infection affects people of any age group but is more common for school going children and young adults. Often those living in crowded settings get infected.
Sexually transmitted disease STD is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis which is one of the species of the bacteria.
Symptoms and signs
This is just another mild illness that causes an upper respiratory tract infection. The common symptoms of the infection are:
Runny or stuffy nose
Being tired (fatigue)
Slowly worsening cough that can last for weeks or months
Hoarseness or loss of voice (laryngitis)
In severe cases, chlamydia results in infections like bronchitis and pneumonia. Pneumonia caused by chlamydia pneumoniae bacterium result in laryngitis but other types of bacterial pneumonia do not cause it. The signs and symptoms show after 21 days of being exposed to the bacterium and these continue for many weeks after that.
Types of Chlamydia Pneumoniae
Chlamydia is intracellular bacterium which makes the host cell parasitized for energy. They have cell walls with outer and inner membranes just like Gram-negative bacteria. They replicate by binary fission and contain RNA, DNA and ribosomes. But they differ from true bacteria because they do not possess the ability to produce their adenosine triphosphate. The life cycle of a Chlamydia can be divided into Raticulate Bodies and Elementary Bodies.
They can be divided into 4 types of species:
C. Trachomatis: This one includes 15 serotypes which share immunogenic epitopes in various degrees. It is majorly a sexually transmitted disease that is linked with nongonococcal urethritis and epididymitis in men, urethritis and pelvic inflammation in women, cervicitis, neonatal conjunctivitis, pneumonia in newborn and Reiter’s syndrome in HLA- B27 haplotype.
C. Pneumoniae: This is a significant respiratory pathogen found in humans and causes up to 10% of community acquired pneumonia cases. It is linked with acute respiratory diseases, asthma, pneumonia, bronchitis, acute chest syndrome, pharyngitis, coronary heart disease and Guillain-Barre syndrome.
C. Psittaci: This one infects a wide and diverse range of host species from birds and molluscs to mammals and causes severe pneumonia. This is seen worldwide as it is a common cause of atypical pneumonia. It is usually uncomplicated but in severe cases can cause disease affecting several organ systems especially in epidemic cases.